IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2018) 696-705    Article in Press

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol31/No5/B/21.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 0   viewed Viewed: 9

M. Bhandwal, R. K. Tyagi, basant S. Sikarwar and P. K. Bajpai
( Received: January 05, 2017 – Accepted: February 27, 2018 )

Abstract    This research focuses on minimizing pollution from the automobiles. In this paper, the three innovative devices,namely Swirl Venturi, Swirl Blades and Swirl Contour, were close-fitted before the catalytic converter of INDICA V2 exhaust system.The present experimental studies were carried out, with devices and without devices also with heating and without heating of catalytic converter, to investigate the emission characteristic of NO, CO, CO2 and HCat various speed (1000, 4000 and 6500 revolutions per minute). Catalytic converter was heated during the cold start phase to increase effectiveness of the system.The results show that catalytic converter effectiveness and efficiency increases because of creating turbulence using these devices and heating the catalytic converter. The present research data also shows that Swirl Blades reduces the CO and HC emission by 33.86%, and by 30.56% respectively as compared to other devices. However, Swirl Contour increases the CO2 level by 28.41% that is desirable. But, NO emission increases by 20.5% that is least value among the other devices. In addition, simulation was carried out to know the velocity distribution inside the devices. These devices increase the transport coefficient in catalytic converter.If these innovative devices are fitted in the exhaust system of an automobile, a significant reduction in pollution can be observed in the environment.


Keywords    Pollution, Catalytic, Converter, Turbulence, Heating, Harmful, Pollutants, CFD, Simulation


References    BBC, Anu Anand, Breathing poison in the world's most polluted city. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32352722.Sperling D, Gordon D, Two Billion Cars: Transforming a Culture, TR News 259; November -December 2008.Mc Dermott W., Air Pollution and Public Health, Scietific American 1961; 205; 49-57.Yang H H, Liu T-C, Chang C-F, Lee E, Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on emissions of regulated air pollutants and carbonyls from motorcycles, Appl Energy 2012; 89:281-286.WangQ, Han Z, Wang T, Zhang R, Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China, Science of The Total Environment 2008; 395:41-49.Badr O, Probert S.D., Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Appl Energy 1994; 49:145-195.Kampa M, Castanas E, Human health effects of air pollution, Environ. Pollution 2008; 151:362–367. Roy S, Hegde M.S., Madras G., Catalysis for NOx abatement, Appl Energy 2009; 86:2283-2297.Basil Dimitriades, Effects of hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides on photochemical smog formation, Environ. Sci. Technol. 1972; 6:253–260. 10.  Meulenbelt J, Nitrogen and Nitrogen Oxides, Medicine 2012;40:139. 11.  Atkinson R, Lloyd A C., Winges L, An updated chemical mechanism for hydrocarbon/NOx/SO2 photo oxidations suitable for inclusion in atmospheric simulation models, Atmospheric Environment 1982; 16:1341-1355. 12.  Tyagi R.K. and Ranjan R., Effect of heating the catalytic converter on emission characteristic of gasoline automotive vehicles, International Journal of Ambient Energy 2013; 36:235-241. 13.  Kisku G.C., Nature and type of pollution from automobiles and strategies for its control, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Environmental Monitoring Division, Lucknow, pp.1-16. 14.  Pundir. B.P., Engine emissions: Pollutant Formation and Advances in Control Technology, Narosa Publishing House (2007), New Delhi. 15.  Weilenmann M, Soltic P, Saxer C, Forss A, Heeb N, Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures, Atmospheric Environment 2005;39 :2433–2441. 16.  Pelkmans L, Lenaers G, Bruyninx J, Scheepers K, De Vlieger I., Impact of biofuels blends on the emission of modern vehicles. IMechE 2011; 225:1204–1220. 17.  Giakoumis E G, A statistical investigation of biodiesel effects on regulated exhaust emissions during transient cycles, Appl Energy 2012; 98:273-291. 18.  Mofijur M., Rasul M.G. Hyde J., Azad A.K., Mamat R., Bhuiya M.M.K., Role of biofuel and their binary(diesel–biodiesel) and ternary (ethanol–biodiesel diesel) blends on internal combustion engines emission reduction, Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016; 53: 265-278. 19.  Hulwan D B, Joshi S V., Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multi-cylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel–ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content, Appl Energy 2011;88:5042-5055. 20.  Rakopoulos C.D., Dimaratos A.M., Giakoumis E.G., Rakopoulus D.C., Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends, Appl Energy 2011;88:3905-3916. 21.  Kannan G. R., Karvembu R., Anand R., Effect of metal based additive on performance emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, Appl Energy 2011; 88:3694-3703. 22.  Ryu K, Effects of pilot injection timing on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel, Appl Energy 2013;111:721-730. 23.  Suh H K, Investigations of multiple injection strategies for the improvement of combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics in a low compression ratio (CR) engine, Appl Energy 2011;88:5013-5019. 24.  Schejbal M., Stepanek J., Koci P., Marek M., Kubicek M., Sequence of monolithic converters DOC–CDPF–NSRC for lean exhaust gas detoxification: A simulation study, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2010; 49: 943-952. 25.  Bhandwal M, et.al., A Novel Exhaust System for Reducing the Gases and Particulate Matter Emitted from Vehicles, 3010/DEL/2015. (filed) 26.  Sharma S.K., Goyal P., Tyagi R.K., Conversion efficiency of catalytic converter, International Journal of Ambient Energy 2015; 37:507-512 27.  Eugene J Houdry, Publication Number US2674521A, 1954. 28.  Shen, H., Shamim, T., and Sengupta, S., An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3473, 1999. 29.  Gumus M., Ugurlu A., Application of phase change materials to pre-heating of evaporator and pressure regulator of a gaseous sequential injection system, Appl Energy 2011; 88:4803-4810. 30.  Kumar B. R, Saravanan S., Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance and emissions 4 of a constant speed DI diesel engine fueled with pentanol/diesel blends, Fuel 2015, 160:217-226. 31.  Sikarwar B. S., Khandekar S., Agrawal S., Kumar S., Muralidhar K., Dropwise Condensation Studies on Multiple Scales, Heat Transfer Engineering 2012; 33:301-341. 32.  Sikarwar B. S., Khandekar S., Muralidhar K., Simulation of flow and heat transfer in a liquid drop sliding underneath a hydrophobic surface, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2013; 57:786-811.

Download PDF 

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir