IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2019) 536-547    Article in Press

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol32/No4/A/11-3051.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 28   viewed Viewed: 108

A. R. Solat, A. M. Ranjbar and B. Mozafari
( Received: December 31, 2018 – Accepted: March 07, 2019 )

Abstract    Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines with traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control provide no inertia response under system frequency events. Recently, the DFIG wind turbines have been equipped with virtual inertia controller (VIC) for supporting power system frequency stability. However, the conventional VICs with fixed gain have negative effects on inter-area oscillations of regional networks. To cope with this drawback, this paper proposes a novel adaptive VIC to improve both the inter-area oscillations and frequency stability. In the proposed scheme, the gain of VIC is dynamically adjusted using fuzzy logic. The effectiveness and control performance of the adaptive fuzzy VIC is evaluated under different frequency events such as loss of generation, short circuit disturbance with load shedding. The simulation studies are performed on a generic two-area network integrated with a DFIG wind farm and the comparative results are presented between three cases: DFIG without VIC, DFIG with fixed gain VIC, and DFIG with adaptive fuzzy VIC. All the results confirm the proposed fuzzy VIC can improve both the inter-area oscillations and frequency stability.


Keywords    Doubley Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine; Virtual Inertia Control; Frequency Stability; Inter-area Oscillation; Fuzzy Logic



توربين¬های بادی مبتنی بر DFIG با کنترل سنتی MPPT نمی توانند پاسخ اينرسيايی موثری به اختلالات فرکانسی شبکه داشته باشند. اخيراً با افزايش ظرفيت توليدات بادی، استراتژی کنترل اينرسی مصنوعی DFIG به منظور پشتيبانی از پايداری فرکانسی شبکه متصل شده، پيشنهاد شده است. با اين حال، در اين مقاله نشان داده می¬شود که کنترل اينرسی مصنوعی متداول با بهره ثابت، اثرات منفی بر ميرايی نوسانات بين ناحيه ای در شبکه¬های قدرت چند ناحيه ای دارد. براي مقابله با اين مشکل، در اين مقاله، يک کنترل¬کننده اينرسی مصنوعي تطبيقی مدرن به منظور کنترل هماهنگ پاسخ اينرسی DFIG و ميرايی نوسانات بين ناحيه ای شبکه قدرت پيشنهاد می-شود. در طرح پيشنهادی، بهره VIC ثابت نيست بلکه با استفاده از منطق فازی و به طور تطبيقی با توجه به نوسانات بين ناحيه¬ای شبکه تنظيم می-شود. عملکرد و کارايي کنترل کننده اينرسی مصنوعی فازی پيشنهادی در شرايط اختلالات فرکانسی مختلف نظير فقدان ناگهانی توليد، خطای اتصال کوتاه و قطع بار، ارزيابی می شود. همچنين مطالعات شبيه سازی روی يک سيستم قدرت دو ناحيه ای استاندارد که يک مزرعه بادی به آن متصل شده است انجام می¬شود و نتايج به صورت مقايسه¬ای برای سه مورد ارايه می¬شوند: 1) DFIG بدون کنترل اينرسی مصنوعی، 2) DFIG با کنترل اينرسی مصنوعی با بهره ثابت، 3) DFIG با کنترل اينرسی مصنوعی تطبيقی فازی. تمام نتايج بدست آمده تأييد می¬کنند که کنترل کننده اينرسی مصنوعی پيشنهادی، علاوه بر بهبود پايداری فرکانسی سيستم قدرت به طور همزمان ميرايی نوسانات بين ناحيه ای را نيز افزايش می¬دهد.


1. Cheng, M., and Ying, Z., "The state of the art of wind energy conversion systems and technologies: A review", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 88, (2014), 332-347.‏
2. Douadi, T., Y. Harbouche, R. Abdessemed, and I. Bakhti,  "Improvement performances of active and reactive power control applied to DFIG for variable speed wind turbine using sliding mode control and FOC." International Journal of Engineering- Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 31, No.10, (2018), 1689-1697.‏
3. Kayikçi, M., and Jovica V. M., "Dynamic contribution of DFIG-based wind plants to system frequency disturbances" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2009), 859-867.‏
4. Gautam, D., Goel, L., Ayyanar, R., Vittal, V. and Harbour, T., "Control strategy to mitigate the impact of reduced inertia due to doubly fed induction generators on large power systems" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 26, No. 1, (2011), 214-224.‏
5. Muyeen, S. M., Rion Takahashi, Toshiaki Murata, and Junji Tamura, "A variable speed wind turbine control strategy to meet wind farm grid code requirements" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 25, No. 1 (2010), 331-340.‏
6. Ochoa, D., and Sergio, M., "Fast-Frequency Response provided by DFIG-Wind Turbines and its impact on the grid" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 32, (2017), 4002-4011.‏
7. Dreidy, M., Mokhlis, H., and Mekhilef, S., "Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources: A review" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 69, (2017), 144-155.‏
8. Morren, J., De Haan, S.W., Kling, W.L. and Ferreira, J.A., "Wind turbines emulating inertia and supporting primary frequency control" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 1 (2006), 433-434.‏
9. Wu, Yuan-Kang, Wu-Han Yang, Yi-Liang Hu, and Phan Quoc Dzung, "Frequency regulation at a wind farm using time-varying inertia and droop controls." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 55, No. 1, (2019), 213-224.‏
10. Attya, A. B., Dominguez-Garcia, J. L. and Anaya-Lara, O., "A review on frequency support provision by wind power plants: Current and future challenges." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 81, (2018), 2071-2087.‏
11. Zhang, Z.S., Y-Z. Sun, Jin Lin, and G-J. Li, "Coordinated frequency regulation by doubly fed induction generator-based wind power plants" IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2012), 38-47.‏ 
12. Sun, Y.Z., Zhang, Z.S., Li, G.J. and Lin, J., "Review on frequency control of power systems with wind power penetration", International Conference on Power System Technology, IEEE, (2010), 1-8. 
13. Pulgar-Painemal, H., and Galvez-Cubillos, R., "Wind farms participation in frequency regulation and its impact on power system damping" Power Technology (POWERTECH), 2013 IEEE Grenoble, (2013).‏
14. Zhang, X., Y. Fu, S. Wang, and Y. Wang, "Effects of two-area variable inertia on transient stabilisation in interconnected power system with DFIG-based wind turbines" IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 11, No. 5, (2017), 696-706.‏ 
15. Gayme, D. F., and Chakrabortty, A., "Impact of wind farm placement on inter-area oscillations in large power systems" American Control Conf (ACC), 2012 IEEE, 2012.‏
16. Miao, Z., Fan, L., Osborn, D. and Yuvarajan, S., "Wind farms with HVdc delivery in inertial response and primary frequency control" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 25, No. 4, (2010), 1171-1178.‏ 
17. Xi, X., Hua, G., and Geng, Y., "Small signal stability of weak power system integrated with inertia tuned large scale wind farm" Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), 2014 IEEE, 2014.‏
18. Fernández, L. M., Jurado, F., and Saenz, J. R., "Aggregated dynamic model for wind farms with doubly fed induction generator wind turbines" Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, No. 1, (2008), 129-140.‏
19. Wu, F., Zhang, X.P., Godfrey, K. and Ju, P., "Small signal stability analysis and optimal control of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator" IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 1, No. 5 (2007), 751-760.‏  
20. Kundur P., Power system stability and control. New York: McGraw Hill, (1994).
21. Xiangyi, Ch., Li Ch., and Wang, Y., "Analysis of the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large scale power systems” 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, (2011), 1627-1631.‏ 
22. Sauer, P. W., Ahmed-Zaid, S., and Kokotovic, P. V. "An integral manifold approach to reduced order dynamic modeling of synchronous machines" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 3, No .1 (1988), 17-23.‏
23. Asgharia, R., Mozafari, S. B., Amraeeb, T., "Delay-Scheduled Controllers for Inter-Area Oscillations Considering Time Delays" International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications, Vol.31, No.11, (2018), 1852-1861.‏
24. Zadeh, L.A., Fuzzy sets. Information and control, Vol. 8, No. 3, (1965), 338-353. 
25. Momoh, J. A., Ma, X. W., and Tomsovic, K., "Overview and literature survey of fuzzy set theory in power systems" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 10, No. 3, (1995), 1676-1690.‏
26. Man, K. F., Tang, K. S., and Kwong, S., "Genetic algorithms: concepts and applications [in engineering design]" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 5, (1996), 519-534.‏ 
27. Lashkar Ara, A., Bagheri Tolabi, H., and Hosseini, R., "Dynamic modeling and controller design of distribution static compensator in a microgrid based on combination of fuzzy set and galaxy-based search algorithm." International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 29, No.10, (2016), 1392-1400.‏
28. Schultz, W. C., and Rideout, V. C., "Control system performance measures: Past, present, and future." IRE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 1, (1961), 22-35.‏
29. Pal, B., Chaudhuri, B. Robust control in power systems, Springer, (2006). 

Download PDF 

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir