IJE TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects Vol. 32, No. 3 (March 2019) 373-380   

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol32/No3/C/4-3026.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 25   viewed Viewed: 69

M. Gharib, M. A. Arjomand, M. R. Abdi and A. Arefnia
( Received: December 14, 2018 – Accepted in Revised Form: March 07, 2019 )

Abstract    Use of soft clay soils in construction activities has faced many problems. Some improvement, stabilization, and reinforcement methods is required to use these soils in body of roads, sub-foundations and embankments. In this research, the effect of chitin nanofiber and rice husk ash as additives on the behavioral properties and bearing resistance of soft clay soils by considering the processing time of 7, 28, 42 and 90 days was investigated. The suitability of chitin nanofiber to be used as an additive was evaluated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Different percentages of additives (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) with variations in chitin nanofiber and rice husk ash ratio were added to soil containing 6% lime. Maximum reduction on liquid limit and plastic index was obtained by addition of 2% additives to the soil containing 6% lime in which the percentage of chitin nanofiber was more than rice husk ash. Using examined additives in clay soil resulted in to a significant increase in bearing resistance, specifically at higher percentages of additives and curing times (days). As a whole, obtained results confirmed the potential use of chitin nanofiber and rice husk ash as additives for the improvement of soft clay soils.


Keywords    Soft Clay Soils; Chitin Nanofiber; Rice Husk Ash; Bearing Resistance; Atterberg Limit



استفاده از خاک‌های رسی نرم در فعالیت‌های ساختمانی با مشکلات فراوانی مواجه شده است. برخی از روش‌های بهبود، تثبیت و تسلیحات برای استفاده از این خاک‌ها در جاده‌ها، زیر پایه‌ها و کف زمین مورد نیاز است. در اين تحقيق، تاثير نانوفیبر کيتين و خاكستر پوسته برنج به عنوان مواد افزودني روی خواص رفتاري و مقاومت فشاری خاك رس نرم با توجه به زمان پردازش 7، 28، 42 و 90 روز بررسي شده است. مناسب بودن نانوفیبر کیتین به عنوان یک افزودنی توسط آنالیزهای FTIR، XRD و SEM ارزیابی شده است. درصدهای مختلفی از افزودنی‌ها (1، 2، 4، 6 و 8 درصد) با تغییرات در نسبت نانو فیبر کیتین و نسبت خاکستر پوسته برنج به خاک حاوی 6 درصد آهک اضافه شده است. حداکثر کاهش در حد خمیری و شاخص پلاستیکی با افزودن 2٪ موادافزودنی به خاک حاوی آهک 6٪ که درصد نانوفیبر کیتین بیشتر از خاکستر پوسته برنج بود، بدست آمد. استفاده از مواد افزودنی مورد بررسی در خاک رس باعث افزایش قابل توجهی در مقاومت فشاری، به ویژه در درصدهای بالاتر از مواد افزودنی و زمان‌های پردازش شده است. به طور کلی، نتايج به دست آمده، استفاده بالقوه از نانوفیبر کيتين و خاکستر پوسته برنج را به عنوان مواد افزودني براي بهبود خاک‌هاي نرم رسوبي تأييد کرده است.


1. Rahimi, H., Abbasi, N., and Shantia, H., “Application of geomembrane to control piping of sandy soil under concrete canal lining (case study: Moghan irrigation project, Iran)”, Irrigation and Drainage, Vol. 60, No. 3, (2011), 330–337. 
2. Rahimi, H., and Abbasi, N., “Failure of concrete canal lining on fine sandy soils: a case study for the Saveh Project”, Irrigation and Drainage, Vol. 57, No. 1, (2008), 83–92. 
3. Abbasi, N., “The Role of Anions in the Dispersion Potential of Clayey Soil”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, (2011), 15–30. 
4. Abbasi, N., and Nazifi, M. H., “Assessment and Modification of Sherard Chemical Method for Evaluation of Dispersion Potential of Soils”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 1, (2013), 337–346. 
5. Majeed, Z. H., Taha, M. R., and Jawad, I. T., “Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology”, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2010), 503–509. 
6. Kutanaei, S. S., and Choobbasti, A. J., “Prediction of combined effects of fibers and cement on the mechanical properties of sand using particle swarm optimization algorithm”, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 6, (2015), 487–501. 
7. Rahmannejad, M., and Toufigh, V., “Influence of Curing Time and Water Content on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Sand Stabilized Using Epoxy Resin”, International Journal of Engineering, TransactionB: Applications, Vol. 31, No. 8, (2018), 1187-1195.
8. Mehta, P.K., “Siliceous ashes and hydraulic cements prepared therefrom,” U.S. Patent No. 4,105,459, Washington, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, (1978).
9. Beeghly, J. H., “Recent Experiences with Lime-Fly Ash Stabilization of Pavement Subgrade Soils, Base, and Recycled Asphalt”, In Proceedings of the International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky, Lexington, US, (2003), 1–18. 
10. Sharma, N. K., Swain, S. K., and Sahoo, U. C., “Stabilization of a Clayey Soil with Fly Ash and Lime: A Micro Level Investigation”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 5, (2012), 1197–1205. 
11. Mallick, R. and El-Korchi, T., Pavement engineering: principles and practice, CRS Press, Newyork, US, (2009).
12. Ouhadi, V. and Amiri, M., “Geo-environmental behaviour of nanoclays in interaction with heavy metals contaminant”, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 3, (2011), 29–36. 
13. Bordes, P., Pollet, E., and Avérous, L., “Nano-biocomposites: Biodegradable polyester/nanoclay systems”, Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, (2009), 125–155. 
14. Chang, P.R., Jian, R., Yu, J., and Ma, X., “Starch-based composites reinforced with novel chitin nanoparticles”, Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 80, No. 2, (2010), 420–425. 
15. Ravi Kumar, M. N. V., “A review of chitin and chitosan applications”, Reactive and Functional Polymers, Vol. 46, No. 1, (2000), 1–27. 
16. Kordatos, K., Gavela, S., Ntziouni, A., Pistiolas, K.N., Kyritsi, A., and Kasselouri-Rigopoulou, V., “Synthesis of highly siliceous ZSM-5 zeolite using silica from rice husk ash”, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 115, No. 1–2, (2008), 189–196. 
17. Prakash, J., Kumari, K., and Kumar V., “Stabilization of Soil Using Rice Husk Ash”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 7, (2017), 12997-13003.
18. “ASTM D4318-87’’, Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils, ASTM standard D4318, (1989).
19. “ASTM D2166-13’’, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils, ASTM standard D2166, (2006). 

Download PDF 

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir