Abstract




 
   

IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications - Special Issue - Sustainable Technologies for Water and Environment; Guest Editor Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, UTM, Malaysia
Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2018) 929-937    Article in Press

downloaded Downloaded: 0   viewed Viewed: 15

  PROSPECT OF EMISSION REDUCTION STANDARD FOR SUSTAINABLE PORT EQUIPMENT ELECTRIFICATION
 
Jonathan C. E. Yong
 
( Received: December 15, 2017 – Accepted: April 18, 2018 )
 
 

Abstract    Despite efficient carbon monitoring system and the commercialization of battery technology for intra-port transportation, port management are found not adopting these environmental yet costly equipments. Port authority who regulates environmental policies lacks leverage to impose tangible reduction on emission through concession. This model integrates sustainability into port equipment expansion theory by quantifying viable equipment electrification profile while observing the constraints of operation, cost and environment. A benchmark emission reduction standard (ERS) is surveyed by Delphi method as environmental demand to determine the electrification of port equipments. The results from Port of Tanjung Pelepas case study suggest an ERS implemented lower than 4% reduction a year is viable to retrofit and replace all electric rubber-tired gantries and prime movers. The simulation model allows informed decision for all port agents to establish viable environmental policies for sustainable port operations.

 

Keywords    Container Handling Equipments, Port Expansion, Electrification, Electric Prime Mover, Electric Rubber-tired Gantry, Carbon Emission, Emission Reduction Standard

 

چکیده    n/a

References    1. Davarzani, H., Fahimnia, B., Bell, M. and Sarkis, J., 2015. Greening ports and maritime logistics: A review. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2.  Dedinec, A., et al., 2013. \"Assessment of climate change mitigation potential of the Macedonian transport sector.\" Energy 57: 177-187. 3. Yang, Y.-C. and W.-M. Chang, 2013. Impacts of electric rubber-tired gantries on green port performance.\" Research in Transportation Business & Management(0) 4. POLA, 2007. Electric Truck Demonstration Project Fact Sheet, The Port of Los Angeles report. Source: https://www.portoflosangeles.org 5. Hartman, B. C. and C. B. Clott, 2012. An economic model for sustainable harbor trucking. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 17(5): 354-360. 6. Lucas, A., Silva, C. A., and Neto, R. C., 2012. Life cycle analysis of energy supply infrastructure for conventional and electric vehicles. Energy Policy,41, 537-547. 7. CALSTART, 2013. I-710 Project Zero-Emission Truck Commercialization Study Final Report, prepared for Gateway Cities Council of  Governments, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority 8. Lam, J. S. L., and Notteboom, T, 2014. The greening of ports: A comparison of port management tools used by leading ports in Asia and Europe. Transport Reviews, 34(2), 169-189. 9. Novaes, A. G., Scholz-Reiter, B., Silva, V. M. D. and Rosa, H., 2012. Long-term planning of a container terminal under demand uncertainty and economies of scale. Pesquisa Operacional, 32(1), 55-86 10.  Memos, C. D., 2004. Port planning. Port engineering: planning, construction, maintenance, and security, edited by Gregory P Tsinker, 7-64. 11. Geerlings, H. and R. van Duin, 2011. A new method for assessing CO2-emissions from container terminals: a promising approach applied in Rotterdam. Journal                 of Cleaner Production 19(6–7): 657-666. 12. APM (A.P. Moller), 2011. APM terminals to retrofit and electrify RTG fleet  worldwide. http://www.apmterminals.com. 13. Nam, K. C., Kwak, K. S. and Yu, M. S., 2002. Simulation study of container terminal performance. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 128(3), 126-132. 14. Notteboom, T., et al., 2012. Institutional plasticity and path dependence in seaports: interactions between institutions, port governance reforms and port authority routines. J. Transp. Geogr. 15. Newell, R.G., Pizer, W.A. and Raimi, D., 2013. Carbon markets 15 years after Kyoto: Lessons learned, new challenges. The Journal of Economic Perspectives27(1), pp.123-146. 16. Bridge, G., Bouzarovski, S., Bradshaw, M. and Eyre, N., 2013. Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy. Energy Policy53, pp.331-340. 17. Pearce, D., Barbier, E. and Markandya, A., 2013. Sustainable development: economics and environment in the Third World. Routledge. 18. Loke, K.B., Saharuddin, A.H., Ibrahim, A.R. and Rizal, I., 2004. Container Handling Efficiency. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Marine Technology. 19. Saanen, I., 2013. Mega ships: Positive asset or terminals’ worst nightmare.Network3, pp.86-106. 20. Longo, F., Bruzzone, A., Nicoletti, L., Massei, M. and Spadafora, F., 2014. An advanced                and flexible simulation tool for environmental impact evaluation and sustainability enhancement in marine ports. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 6(3), 70-84. 21. ICF International, 2009. Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile Source Port-Related Emission Inventories Final Report April 2009. 22. World Bank, 2014. Pump price for diesel fuel, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EP.PMP.DESL.CD 23. Tenaga Nasional Berhad, 2013. Malaysian Industry Energy Tariffs. 24. JPA (2014). Johor Port Authority Green Port Policy 2014-2020. Source: www.lpj.gov.my/images/accordian/green-port.pdf) 25. Edenhofer, O. and M. Kalkuhl, 2011. \"When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox.\" Energy Policy 39(4): 2208-2212. 26. Vera, S. and Sauma, E., 2015. Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the Chilean case. Energy88, pp.478-488. 27. Taylor, R., and Hoyle, R., 2014. Australia becomes first developed nation to repeal carbon tax. The Wall Street Journal, 17. 28. Zarei M.,  Rezaeian J.and  Shokoufi K., \"Pareto-Based Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Algorithm Approach For Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem With Sequence-Dependent Setup Times\", International Journal Of Engineering Transaction C: Aspects Vol. 30, No. 12 (2017) 1437-1446     29. Delkhosh  M. & Saadat M., \"Multi-Objective Optimization Of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped With Power-Split Continuously Variable Transmission\", International Journal Of Engineering Transaction C: Aspects Vol. 29, No. 3 (2016) 368-377  30. Ghasemi  J. and Rasekhi J., \"Traffic Signal Prediction Using Elman Neural Network And Particle Swarm Optimization\", International Journal Of Engineering Transaction B: Application Vol. 29, No. 11 (2016) 1558-1564 31. Markard, J., Raven, R. and Truffer, B., 2012. Sustainability transitions: An emerging field of research and its prospects. Research Policy41(6), pp.955-967.





International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir