IJE TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects Vol. 31, No. 12 (December 2018) 2009-2015   

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol31/No12/C/3-2970.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 27   viewed Viewed: 336

R. Nikbakht and F. Behnamfar
( Received: March 18, 2018 – Accepted in Revised Form: August 17, 2018 )

Abstract    Passing underground trains induce vibrations transmitted to the ground surface and the nearby structures. Ordinarily, these vibrations do not result in structural damage but can harm nonstructural elements and disturb the occupants. These effects are more pronounced when evaluating buildings like hospitals, laboratories, museums, etc., and their assessment is an important design need. To respond to this requirement, in this paper response spectra for passing trains moving with different velocities are calculated. Using these spectra, without resorting to the time consuming and costly analysis of a tunnel-soil system under moving loads, the maximum structural responses can be calculated rapidly. To make this end, the soil-tunnel interaction is modeled using a three dimensional (3D) finite difference scheme under the standard moving train loads. The dynamic analysis of such a system results in the ground surface vibration time histories at different distances from the tunnel axis. Then the maximum values of acceleration, velocity, and displacement responses are calculated for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) dynamical system. The above calculations are accomplished for different standard trains, train velocities, tunnel depths, distances from tunnel, and soil types, and are presented as response acceleration, velocity, and displacement spectra.


Keywords    Underground Tunnel; Soil-tunnel Interaction; Surface Vibrations; Response Spectra Surface Structures



در اثر عبور قطارهای زیر زمینی ارتعاشاتی در سطح زمین ایجاد و به سازه های مجاور آن انتقال می یابد. این ارتعاشات باعث خرابی سازه ای نمی شود اما گاهی می تواند اثرات مخرب غیر سازه ای و اذیت و آزار ساکنین این ساختمان ها را به خصوص در سازه هایی نظیر بیمارستانها، آزمایشگاه ها، موزه ها و غیره به همراه داشته باشد. با توجه به نیاز مهندسین به ارزیابی سریع ارتعاشات سطحی ایجاد شده ناشی از حرکت قطارهای زیر زمینی و تحلیل عملکرد سازه، در این کار به تهیه طیف های طراحی در اثر حركت قطارهايی با سرعت های مختلف پرداخته شده است. با استفاده از این نمودارها بدون صرف زمان زیاد براي تحليل يك مدل پيچيده خاك-تونل-سازه تحت بار متحرك می توان به حداكثر پاسخ سازه پی برد. برای این کار مدلسازی اندر کنش تونل و خاك، با استفاده از روش عددی تفاضل های محدود به صورت سه بعدی انجام شده و بارگذاری آن به صورت متحرك برای قطارهای استاندارد انجام می گيرد. از تحليل ديناميكی تاريخچه زمانی اين سيستم ارتعاشات سطح زمين در فواصل مختلف از محور تونل به دست می آيد. با بهره گيری از تاريخچه اين ارتعاشات سطحی، واكنش ديناميكی و طيف های طراحی سازه یک درجه آزادی محاسبه می گردد. اين كار برای انواع قطارهای استاندارد، سرعت قطار، عمق تونل، فاصله از تونل و جنس خاک انجام شده و به صورت طیف های طراحی تغييرمكان، سرعت و شتاب ارائه مي گردد.


1. Gupta, S., Degrande, G. and Lombaert, G., "Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 321, No. 3-5, (2009), 786-812.
2. Hussein, M.F.M., "Vibration from underground railways, University of Cambridge,  Vol. 11,  (2004).
3. Hung, H.-H. and Yang, Y.-B., "A review of researches on ground-borne vibrations with emphasis on those induced by trains", in Proc. Nat. Sci. Council Part A: Phys. Sci. & Eng. Vol. 25, (2001), 1-16.
4. Madshus, C.c. and Kaynia, A., "High-speed railway lines on soft ground: Dynamic behaviour at critical train speed", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 231, No. 3, (2000), 689-701.
5. Takemiya, H., "Simulation of track–ground vibrations due to a high-speed train: The case of x-2000 at ledsgard", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 261, No. 3, (2003), 503-526.
6. Krylov, V.V., "On the theory of railway-induced ground vibrations", Le Journal de Physique IV,  Vol. 4, No. C5, (1994), C5-769-C765-772.
7. Kaynia, A.M., Madshus, C. and Zackrisson, P., "Ground vibration from high-speed trains: Prediction and countermeasure", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,  Vol. 126, No. 6, (2000), 531-537.
8. Lombaert, G., Degrande, G., Kogut, J. and François, S., "The experimental validation of a numerical model for the prediction of railway induced vibrations", Journal of sound and vibration,  Vol. 297, No. 3-5, (2006), 512-535.
9. Chebli, H., Clouteau, D. and Schmitt, L., "Dynamic response of high-speed ballasted railway tracks: 3d periodic model and in situ measurements", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 28, No. 2, (2008), 118-131.
10. Galvín, P. and Dominguez, J., "High-speed train-induced ground motion and interaction with structures", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 307, No. 3-5, (2007), 755-777.
11. Degrande, G. and Schillemans, L., "Free field vibrations during the passage of a thalys high-speed train at variable speed", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 247, No. 1, (2001), 131-144.
12. Hall, L., "Simulations and analyses of train-induced ground vibrations in finite element models", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 23, No. 5, (2003), 403-413.
13. Hussein, M. and Hunt, H., "A power flow method for evaluating vibration from underground railways", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 293, No. 3-5, (2006), 667-679.
14. Pakbaz, M., Mehdizadeh, R., Vafaeian, M. and Bagherinia, K., "Numerical prediction of subway induced vibrations: Case study in iran-ahwaz city", Journal of Applied Sciences,  Vol. 9, No. 11, (2009), 2001-2015.
15. Hou, B., Gao, L., Xin, T. and Cai, X., "Prediction of structural vibrations using a coupled vehicle-track–building model", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit,  Vol. 230, No. 2, (2016), 510-530.
16. Cik, M. and Lercher, P., "Ground-borne vibrations, sounds and secondary airborne sounds from tramways: A psychoacoustic evaluation including health aspects", in INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings, Institute of Noise Control Engineering. Vol. 249, (2014), 3352-3360.
17. Yao, J., Xia, H., Zhang, N. and Yu, B., "Prediction on building vibration induced by moving train based on support vector machine and wavelet analysis", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology,  Vol. 28, No. 6, (2014), 2065-2074.
18. Adam, M. and Von Estorff, O., "Reduction of train-induced building vibrations by using open and filled trenches", Computers & Structures,  Vol. 83, No. 1, (2005), 11-24.
19. Andersen, L. and Nielsen, S.R., "Reduction of ground vibration by means of barriers or soil improvement along a railway track", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 25, No. 7-10, (2005), 701-716.
20. Xu, Y. and Guo, A., "Microvibration control of coupled high tech equipment-building systems in vertical direction", International Journal of Solids and Structures,  Vol. 43, No. 21, (2006), 6521-6534.
21. Wang, H., Tao, T., Cheng, H. and He, X., "Simulation study on train-induced vibration control of a long-span steel truss girder bridge by tuned mass dampers", Mathematical Problems in Engineering,  Vol. 2014, (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/506578.
22. Holm, G., Andréasson, B., Bengtsson, P.-E., Bodare, A. and Eriksson, H., "Mitigation of track and ground vibrations by high speed trains at ledsgard, sweden", Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre, Report,  Vol. 10, (2002), 58-67.
23. Itasca, F., "V5. 0, fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions, user’s guide", Itasca Consulting Group, Minneapolis, Minnesota, (2011), 318-308.
24. Krylov, V.V., "Noise and vibration from high-speed trains, Thomas Telford,  (2001).
25. F., B. and R., N., "Structural response spectra under passing underground trains", in 3rdInternational Conference on Recent Advances in Railway Engineering (ICRARE-2013), Iran University of Science and Technology -Tehran, (2013).
26. Bowles, L., "Foundation analysis and design, McGraw-hill,  (1996).
27. Lai, C.G., Callerio, A., Faccioli, E., Morelli, V. and Romani, P., "Prediction of railway-induced ground vibrations in tunnels", Journal of Vibration and Acoustics,  Vol. 127, No. 5, (2005), 503-514. 

Download PDF 

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir