Abstract




 
   

IJE TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects Vol. 31, No. 12 (December 2018) 1818-1825   

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  SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE)
 
S. Z. Nourbakhsh Amiri
 
( Received: June 09, 2018 – Accepted: October 26, 2018 )
 
 

Abstract    Ginger is one of the commonly used spices that has been exhibited to have pharmaceutical activities. These therapeutic properties are mainly attribute to gingerols and shogaols. To extract these bioactive compounds, subcritical water extraction (SWE) was employed as a green method. The influence of adding co-solvents, temperature, retention time and particle size on extraction yield were investigated. In addition the impact of ultrasonic and enzyme pretreatment was studied. Enzyme-assisted SWE with 2% ethanol as co-solvent and using ginger having particle size of 1mm, operated at 130°C and 20 bars for 30 min, is approved as optimized condition. At this condition, the total obtained polyphenol content and the concentration of total gingerols and shogaol were 5325 µg GAE/g dried ginger and 2990.5 µg bioactive/g dried ginger, respectively. Pretreatment of ginger powder with α-amylase prior to SWE, resulted in a 2.8 and 2.22 folds increase in total polyphenol content and concentration of total gingerols and shogaol, respectively. SEM analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of pretreatment on morphology of ginger and analyze the extraction process.

 

Keywords    ginger, gingerol, shogaol, subcritical water, enzyme pretreatment

 

چکیده    زنجبیل از ادویه جات پرکاربردی است که خواص دارویی مختلفی از خود نشان می­دهد. این خواص دارویی، عمدتا به ترکیبات جینجرول­ و شوگول موجود در آن مربوط می­شود. در پژوهش پیش رو ، از آب زیر بحرانی به عنوان یک حلال سبز جهت استخراج این ترکیبات استفاده شد. اثر افزودن کمک حلال، دما، زمان ماند و سایز ذرات بر بازده استخراج مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و تاثیر پیش تیمار آلتراسونیک و آنزیمی نیز بررسی شد. استخراج همراه با پیش تیمار آنزیمی، با افزودن 2% اتانول به عنوان کمک حلال، در دمای 130°C ، فشار 20 بار و زمان ماند 30 دقیقه روی زنجبیل با سایز ذرات 1 میلی متر، به عنوان شرایط بهینه انتخاب شد. در این شرایط مجموع ترکیبات فنولی و مجموع جینجرول و شوگول استخراج شده به ترتیب به میزان 5325 میکروگرم گالیک اسید/ گرم زنجبیل و 2990.5 میکروگرم /گرم زنجبیل حاصل گشت. پیش تیمار زنجبیل با آنزیم آلفا آمیلاز قبل از استخراج توسط آب زیربحرانی سبب افزایش 2.8برابری مجموع ترکیبات فنولی و 2.2 برابری مجموع جینجرول و شوگول استخراجی شد. آنالیز SEM جهت بررسی اثر پیش تیمار بر مورفولوژی سطح زنجبیل و تحلیل فرآیند استخراج انجام شد.

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