IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 11 (November 2018) 1918-1928    Article in Press

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S. H. Mirmohammadi and R. Sahraeian
( Received: May 05, 2018 – Accepted in Revised Form: October 26, 2018 )

Abstract    One of the strategic decisions that can be made in supply chain is designing its network which has high impact on costs, and satisfaction level of customers. This paper focuses on designing a distribution network including determining the number and location of facilities, how to allocate the customers in network, and also determining the extent of carrying different products from different origins to different destinations; in this distribution network, according to the existing restrictions, customer demand is considered at minimum cost. In addition to secondary chain and reuse market as a retrieval option, model flexibility in defining quality and routing-locating is also among the innovation points of the model. Firstly, in forward chain the model consists of supplier, manufacturer, warehouse, distributor, and customer. In reverse chain, the model includes reuse market, secondary supply chain, collection, reprocess and disposal centers. The model could be generalized to industries with various strategies. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis was performed on a numerical example; also the non-dominated sorting algorithm (NSGA II) was used for a large-sized sample; which its performance was measured by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The results show that, returned products with average quality lead to lower costs and higher social benefits; and meta-heuristic NSGA II method is efficient. Because, it creates business opportunities and leads to less economic and environmental costs.


Keywords    Sustainable Closed-loop Supply Chain, Routing and Location Problem, Transportation, Segmentation of Returned Products



یکی از تصمیمات استراتژیک در زنجیره¬تأمین، طراحی شبکه زنجیره¬تأمین است، که تأثیر فراوانی بر هزینه¬ها و همچنین سطح رضایت ¬مندی مشتریان دارد. این مقاله به طراحی شبکه توزیعی شامل تعیین تعداد و موقعیت تسهیلات، چگونگی تخصیص مشتریان در شبکه و تعیین میزان حمل-کالاهای مختلف از مبادی گوناگون به مقاصد متفاوت در شبکه توزیع؛ به گونه¬ای که تقاضای تمامی مشتریان با کمترین هزینه و با توجه به محدودیت¬های موجود، برآورده گردد؛ می¬پردازد. علاوه بر زنجیره‌ ثانویه و بازار استفاده ‌مجدد به عنوان گزینه بازیابی، انعطاف مدل در تعریف کیفیت و مسیریابی-مکان¬یابی نیز در میان نقاط نوآوری مدل است. اولاً، مدل در زنجیره‌ مستقیم شامل تأمین‌کننده، تولید‌کننده، انبار، توزیع‌کننده و مشتری است و در زنجیره‌ برگشت نیز شامل بازار استفاده‌ مجدد، زنجیره ‌تأمین ثانویه، مراکز جمع‌آوری، بازفرآوری و انهدام است. این مدل برای صنایع با انواع استراتژی‌ها قابل تعمیم است. دوماً، یک تحلیل حساسیت بر روی مثالی عددی انجام شده‌است؛ همچنین روش متاهیوریستیک ژنتیک2 برای مثال عددی بزرگ‌تر بکار گرفته شده‌است، که با آزمون ANOVA کارایی آن سنجیده شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که محصولات برگشتی با کیفیت متوسط منجر به هزینه¬های کمتر و مزایای اجتماعی بیشتر می¬گردد و روش متاهیوریستیک NSGA II کارا است. چرا که در کنار ایجاد فرصت¬های کسب و کار، هزینه¬های اقتصادی و زیست -محیطی کمتری را متحمل می¬شود.


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